October Pottage

October pottage

Autumn is a good time for harvesting food from the garden and it must have been the same for a fourteenth-century housewife. This year I’ve grown a lot beetroot and it’s time to dig them up before the slugs get used to eating them. Beetroot has featured in most of the recent pottage experiments because the crop has been good. Households in the fourteenth century must also have used more of what they had freely available.

Next to my rows of beetroot is a row of leeks. They’re still small, but I thinned them and added the ones I picked to the pot instead of onion.

The internet tells me that sage goes well with beetroot, so I picked some from the garden and threw that in as well. The other main ingredient of the pottage was barley.

I cut the beetroot into chunks and boiled it for half an hour on its own, then added the rest of the ingredients. The pottage simmered for another thirty minutes. The smell while it was doing this was wonderful.

Sadly, the problem with a dish made of things boiled with beetroot is that everything ends up red and it’s far from photogenic. I’m sorry about the photograph at the top of the post, but you should at least be able to see that it’s not a runny pottage.

The final result was tasty and filling. I enjoyed it and might make it again.


April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

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Filed under Medieval Food

Anatomy of a Castle – Gates and Gatehouses


Drum Towers, Gate of Southampton Castle

Gates are important places in castles and serve two functions. They keep out people you don’t want inside the castle while simultaneously impressing the people you do want inside the castle.

The picture at the top of the post shows what remains of the drum towers by the gate to Southampton Castle. Drum towers are round towers connected to the walls of a castle. Unsurprisingly, they’re so-named because they look like drums. I hope you’ll forgive a diversion, but the pub you can see at the bottom of the alley is supposed to stand on the location of the house in which Jane Austen stayed during the three years she lived in Southampton.

Old Sarum’s gate was approached over a bridge. You can just see the gatehouse at the top of the bridge. There would be gatekeepers in the gatehouse, waiting to open gates and raise portcullises for residents and welcome visitors.

Gatehouse, Old Sarum (2)

Gatehouse, Old Sarum

The medieval bridge would have been hinged, allowing it to be ‘broken’ by swinging it up or down when unwelcome visitors arrived. It could not, however, be raised in the way that you might be thinking.

Gatehouse, Portchester Castle

The Gatehouse, Portchester Castle

The gatehouse to Portchester Castel is rather impressive. You can see in the foreground of the photograph to the left and the right the grooves for the portcullis. Through the gate you can see the outer bailey and one of the outer walls. This gate gave access to the castle itself.

Portchester Castle has four gates in the outer walls. They’re all on the sites of the original Roman gates. This is the landgate, dating from the fourteenth century. It connects the outer bailey to the land side of the outside world.

Landgate from keep 2

Landgate, Portchester Castle

There’s water on two and a half sides of the castle, so there’s a watergate at the opposite end of the outer bailey, which you can just about see on the right of this photograph. It would allow access by sea.

Ashton's Tower from keep, Portchester Castle

Ashton’s Tower from the Keep, Portchester Castle

Like the landgate, the watergate is a fourteenth-century replacement of a Roman gate. It also had a portcullis.

Below is the medieval entrance to Kenilworth Castle. It’s less than impressive now, but the towers were once two (or more) storeys high. This allowed the portcullis to be raised and lowered by means of a winch on the first floor.


The Gatehouse at Kenilworth Castle

As well as the main gates, most castles also had postern gates. If, like me, you’ve always thought of postern gates as small and unobtrusive, the one at Old Sarum will surprise you. It was almost as large as a main gate and had a recess by it for a guard. It’s also right next to the keep.

What really bothered me when I was there was that the only place you could go once you were through the gate was into the ditch. That’s a problem when you think that the postern is supposed to be a secret, but there would have been a bridge over the moat and a path leading down to another gate in the outer defences.

Postern gate, Old Sarum

Postern Gate, Old Sarum

The postern gate at Portchester Castle is so small that I missed it. In the photograph below it’s the black shadow in the Roman wall on the right of the castle. The Roman fort was laid out in a square and there was another postern gate in the opposite wall.

Castle and outer bailey from watergate 3

Portchester Castle and Outer Bailey

Postern gates were most useful during a siege, when soldiers could leave the castle in relative secrecy and attack the besiegers. True to my romantic hopes, they could also be left open to allow the enemy (or the hero, in my case) entrance into the castle.


Old Sarum – John McNeill

Kenilworth Castle – Richard K. Morris

Portchester Castle – John Goodall


April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

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Filed under Castle

Anatomy of a Castle – The Hall

20180926_112151 (2)

In many ways, a castle is just like any other medieval house with more than a couple of rooms. Houses and castles usually have a hall: a large room for meals and receiving visitors. As a result, they were the largest enclosed space in the building. They were also where the servants slept.

In a castle, a hall is obviously much larger than it would be in a house and more grandly decorated. There are some other differences. John of Gaunt’s Great Hall at Kenilworth Castle, pictured above, is very large. It also has huge and intricate windows. The hall was so impressive that it’s the only part of the castle left untouched by the Earl of Leicester when he took over Kenilworth two hundred years later.

Somewhat unusually, the hall had six fireplaces. You can see one of them in the photograph below, which also shows the vaulting of the cellars below the hall.  The wall above the fireplace was probably covered by a tapestry. These were very expensive and displaying them was a way of showing how wealthy someone was.


Fireplace in the Great Hall, Kenilworth Castle

The walls would also have been painted and would have been colourful even when the tapestries were taken down.

Halls were usually on the first floors of castles, unlike in houses, where they were at ground level.

Richard II's Hall diagram

King Richard’s Great Hall, Portchester Castle

As you can see from the photograph of Richard II’s Great Hall at Portchester Castle above, the hall is close to the kitchen, allowing food to be served easily. This hall also had large windows in the wall facing the inner bailey. The wall facing the outer bailey has no windows at all for reasons of security. Halls in houses rarely had large windows. When your only source of heat was a fire in the middle of the floor and windows were usually unglazed, your windows would be quite small in order to retain as much heat as possible during the long, dark winter nights.

Richard II’s windows at Portchester were glazed. It’s recorded that the glass was decorated with coats of arms and heraldic devices. Richard also had a large collection of tapestries, some of which would have been hung on the walls when he visited the palace.

When a visitor to either of these halls entered the door at the top of the steps, they were still not in the hall. They would find themselves in a screened area, mainly used by the servants. An invitation to enter the hall itself was a great honour.

This is a photograph of one of the two halls at Wolvesey Castle, one of the palaces of the medieval bishops of Winchester.


East Hall, Wolvesey Castle, Winchester

The palace had a private hall and a larger, more public hall. The latter (the one in the photograph) was used for ceremonial occasions or when more space was needed. Originally the hall was on ground level, but it was remodelled and raised to the first floor about twenty years later.

Like the rest of the castle, the hall was used to impress upon the visitor the importance, wealth and power of the man who owned it.


Kenilworth Castle –  Richard K. Morris

Portchester Castle –  John Goodall


April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

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Filed under Castle, Fourteenth Century

The Anatomy of a Castle – The Tower

Ashton's Tower from keep, Portchester Castle

Ashton’s Tower from the keep, Portchester Castle

A tower was a tall structure on the outer wall of a castle and most castles had more than one. None of them was as tall as the keep. Despite that, they were very much a sign of dominion in the early, Norman, castles. They were called donjons, from the Latin ‘dominor’ – to master, to rule over.

Originally towers were square. This made them fairly easy to build. Square towers were, however, vulnerable to mining. If the besieging army could send miners underground, they could cause a tower to collapse by setting fire to the wood that had been supporting the tunnel under a corner of the tower. The corners were weak spots.

Round towers were less vulnerable to undermining. In addition, it was more difficult to rest a ladder against a round tower, which meant that castles with round towers were less easy to storm.

When Edward I built his showpiece castle at Caernarfon, he built polygonal towers inspired by the towers of Constantinople.

Towers had arrow loops built into them allowing the defenders to shoot arrows or crossbow bolts at attackers whilst having some form of protection. The shape of the arrow loop allows the archer, or crossbowman, to cover quite a lot of the ground below the tower. There is room for them to move from side to side and up and down, but the part of the arrow loop presented on the outside is so narrow that opposing archers or crossbowmen would need a lot of skill to get an arrow through it.


Arrow Loop, Arundel Tower, Southampton

This is the same tower from the outside. You can see how narrow the arrow loops are. Any soldiers attacking this tower would have to shoot upwards as well.  In this particular instance, they’d probably have to do it from a ship, as the water used to come up to the walls.

Arundel Tower, Southampton

Arundel Tower, Southampton

Ideally a castle would have enough towers around its curtain wall to allow archers and crossbowmen to cover all of the ground outside and inside.

Archers and crossbowmen were not the towers only means of defence. Mangonels and other forms of catapult could be used from the tops of towers. This would give them a greater throwing distance than similarly sized catapults used by the besiegers.

This last tower is from a bishop’s palace. Despite its name, Wolvesey Castle isn’t a castle, although it was fortified. It was built by Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, in the mid-twelfth century. He was the brother of King Stephen, whose reign was mostly taken up with the civil war known as the Anarchy.  Somewhat surprisingly, given that he was the king’s brother, Henry changed sides more than once, necessitating the fortification of his palace in Winchester.

Wymond's Tower, Wolvesey Castle, Winchester

Wymond’s Tower, Wolvesey Castle, Winchester


April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

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Filed under Castle, Fourteenth Century, Medieval Buildings

September Pottage



Last month Sonia Boal, from Losing the Plot, told that I had forgotten something very important when I was making my pottages: I live on the coast. That means there was probably edible seaweed here in the fourteenth century and it might have added saltiness to pottage. We don’t have much of a tradition of eating seaweed in Hampshire, but they’re very keen on it in other parts of the country. Sonia very kindly sent me some dulse from Northern Ireland.

I can’t tell you how wonderful dulse is. It’s salty and chewy and it goes down very well with cold beer. It’s a lovely colour and it’s a wonder there was any left for the pottage experiment. My photograph doesn’t quite capture its deep purple colour.

According to Wikipedia, dulse contains a lot of protein, trace elements, minerals and vitamins. Sadly, it only grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, so would not have been available to someone living where my house is in the fourteenth century. There probably was some kind of edible seaweed here, however, so it seemed to be an experiment worth trying.

I wanted to find out whether the saltiness of the seaweed would add something to a pottage, so I chose some straightforward ingredients that would have been available at this time of year: peas and barley. I could have dried some of my own peas, but I enjoy them fresh too much to have saved any. I had to use supermarket marrowfat peas. These have to be soaked overnight and then boiled for an hour and a half. There’s also grain this month.  My pottage contained barley, garlic, onion, peas and seaweed. There were no other herbs or flavourings. As you can see from the photograph below, I went for a thicker pottage this month.


September Pottage

Somewhat surprisingly the seaweed disintegrated while it was cooking, turning an offputting browny-green colour in the pan. By the time the peas were cooked (almost an hour and a half) the seaweed had disappeared completely and the colour was a bit more appealing.

Last year I made a pottage with similar ingredients. Even with a lot of herbs it didn’t taste particularly nice. This one was lovely. The seaweed did make a difference and it was definitely worth throwing some into the pan.


April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

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Filed under Medieval Food, Medieval Life

Anatomy of a Castle – The Moat

Moat from the gatehous

Moat from the gatehouse, Portchester Castle

There is, in my opinion, little to beat a moat for dramatic interest in a castle. The hero of one of my early novels swam a moat to get to his lady, an act which I now think would more likely lead to pneumonia than a happy ever after ending.

Failing pneumonia, he might have caught something else, since any latrines in the castle emptied into the moat. Castle wells had to be lined with lead to stop the contents of a moat seeping into them. In retrospect, having him come into contact with the moat at all seems like a bad idea.

Moats came in all shapes, sizes and locations: some are round; some are square; some are filled with water; some are empty; some are within the outer walls and some are outside the walls.

This is probably the most famous moat in England. It’s Bodiam Castle in East Sussex. On a still day the castle is reflected in the moat, reminding the visitor that Bodiam wasn’t built for defensive purposes, but simply to be beautiful.


By Pilgrimsoldier – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=35164296

Most moats added to the castle’s defences. It was almost impossible to storm a castle with a moat. They made it difficult to get siege engines close. Although few moats were as wide as Bodiam’s, you could see that there would be no chance of soldiers getting close to the walls in any kind of siege tower. There’s nowhere to rest a ladder for soldiers to climb to the top of the walls. Even more important, the towers couldn’t be mined.

Mining was the process by which the besieging army dug underground until they were beneath a corner of a tower. Once there they would set a fire which caused part of the wall to collapse. The army would then enter the castle through the damaged wall.

The moat at Old Sarum is empty, but the sides of the hill on which the castle was built are very steep. Although the moat encircles the walls, the castle’s outer bailey is on the other side of the moat. In the photograph below the outer bailey is where there are people walking.

Moat, Old Sarum (2)

Moat, Old Sarum

Attacking from below was never a great option for a medieval soldier and attacking up a steep hill was even worse. It was easy for people above to throw things down on them and there was little they could do to protect themselves.

Here’s another photograph from Old Sarum down into the valley. You can see how high and steep the hill is.

Moat and outer bailey, Old Sarum

Moat and outer bailey, Old Sarum

Portchester Castle is one that has a water moat. It’s not terribly impressive these days. As you can see in the picture below, part of it is within the outer walls and there are people having their lunch in the outer bailey.  That part of the outer bailey alone is large enough to host a cricket match. What you can’t see from the photograph is that the moat goes outside the outer walls as well.

Moat and outer bailey

Moat and outer bailey, Portchester Castle

You’ll remember from last week’s post that Portchester Castle is on the edge of a harbour, so there’s plenty of water about for the moat. In the Middle Ages the moat would have been deeper and wider and much more of an obstacle to anyone who wanted to storm the castle.

Bodiam had a fairly large moat, but Kenilworth Castle’s moat was huge. It was created by damming two rivers, and the castle was effectively surrounded by a lake. These water defences were partly responsible for the longest siege in England in the Middle Ages.  For six months in 1266 the castle held out against Henry III and his army. Attempts to storm the castle by water failed. His stone-throwing weapons did not have the range of those within the castle walls. In the end, the inhabitants of the castle surrendered because they were running out of food.



Castle – Marc Morris

Portchester Castle –  John Goodall


April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

Available now:













Filed under Castle

The Anatomy of a Castle – The Keep

Keeps are tall towers. They’re typically located on the opposite side of the bailey to the gatehouse, or in the centre of the castle.  Early keeps, like the castles they stood in, were designed to intimidate the locals. They were also called donjons, from the Latin dominus – lord, or master.  They were designed to be strong. It should be noted that not all towers are keeps. Towers on outer walls are just towers.

The best-known keep in England is the White Tower in the Tower of London. It was built in the 1080s by William the Conqueror and was whitewashed on the orders of Henry III in 1240.

When I visited Portchester Castle earlier in the year, I couldn’t get all of the keep into the frame to take a photograph, so I made a short video.

The keep at Portchester is not opposite the gatehouse. They are on diagonally opposite corners of the castle walls, which more or less form a square. In the 1130s the keep was built to a height just above the walls. Two more stories were added by the 1150s and a final floor in the 1320s. In the opening seconds of the video you can see the holes in a wall where the fourteenth-century staircase to the first-floor entrance used to be. They’re on the bottom right of the picture.

There are latrines and fireplaces in the keep, which show that it was intended for domestic use, rather than storage or primarily for defence.

Keeps were the last line of defence of a castle. They were made to be difficult to get into and once in it wasn’t easy for the enemy to get much further.

Stairs in keep

The stairs in the keep, Portchester Castle

The stairs are narrowest on the right-hand side by design. The attackers would not have been able to use weapons in their right hands effectively, whilst the defenders would. The defenders would also have the advantage of being above their attackers.

Fortunately for me, and most visitors, there are modern, wooden stairs within the keep.  You only need to use the spiral stairs if you want to get to the very top of the keep. I was happy enough to enjoy the view from the highest point I could reach without using them.

Landgate from keep 2

Landgate and Portsmouth from the keep, Portchester Castle

This is what remains of the keep at Old Sarum. It’s directly opposite the main gate. The gap you can see to the right is the postern gate and we’ll get on to that in a later post.

Tower and courtyard house, Old Sarum

Tower and courtyard house, Old Sarum

Old Sarum is on top of a hill. One of the reasons for putting a tall tower on top of a hill was obviously to make an impression on those who saw it. The rooms at the bottom of the keep were probably used for storage. They’re at ground level and the main entrance to the keep was above them, reached by steps. This was a feature of most keeps.

Steps to tower, Old Sarum 2

Steps to tower, Old Sarum

The room on the first floor of a keep was probably used by the lord of the castle to receive visitors and would have been decorated to impress.



Castle – Marc Morris

Portchester Castle –  John Goodall

Old Sarum –  John McNeill


April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

Available now:











Filed under Castle

Anatomy of a Castle – The Household

Richard II's Palace 2

Richard II’s Palace, Portchester Castle

Before I get on to the physical structures of a castle, I wanted to touch on something that most of us forget when we see or visit one.  Apart from tourists, most castles are empty ruins these days. When they were built, however, they were home to many people. They didn’t just house soldiers. It took lots of servants to run and  maintain a castle, especially when the family of the man who had charge of it was in residence.

Castles were expensive and took a long time to build. At Guédelon in France there is a construction project in which a castle designed in a thirteenth-century style is being built using medieval methods. It’s a modest castle, but they’ve already been building for 20 years and it’s not finished. Partly that’s due to the number of people working on it. A medieval building-site would have had many more. They would only have worked a few months each year, though, covering the walls against the winter weather from September to May.

A castle was, therefore, the ultimate medieval home. It was a luxury residence for the fabulously wealthy. When you visit a castle, try to imagine it with paintings and designs on the interior walls. People of the fourteenth century loved colour and their taste often seems garish to our eyes, so think about colours so bright that they hurt.

Some walls would have been covered with tapestries, another luxury item. They served not just to show the wealth of the man who owned them, but also as decoration and insulation.

As well as having a military purpose, castles were often administrative centres. This meant that the households were large and included:

  • The lord and his family
  • Knights (usually young)
  • The lord’s domestic servants
  • Clerks (both priests and administrators)
  • Soldiers
  • Cooks
  • Carters
  • Huntsmen
  • Falconers
  • Artisans
  • Stable lads
  • Men for general labouring work

Such a large number of people would get through the resources of the surrounding area fairly quickly. This meant that the lord rarely spent more than a few weeks in one place. He would move between his estates with about 50 people, leaving a garrison of soldiers behind in the castle together with a few servants.

The next time you visit a castle see the soldiers training in the bailey; watch servants carrying water from the well to the kitchens; hear the dogs barking and the horses neighing; and smell the bread being baked in the bakery.


Castle – Marc Morris

April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

Available now:











Filed under Castle, Fourteenth Century, Uncategorized

Anatomy of a Castle

Anatomy of a castle

I’ve been thinking about, and visiting, castles recently. There’s nothing like going to a medieval building to give you ideas to put into a novel. When I went to Old Sarum on a very wet day, I almost slipped over in the mud. On the drive home I thought about how dangerous a medieval castle could be in the rain. There are slippery external staircases without handrails; uncovered wells surrounded by mud; and bridges across moats. I could picture one of my characters being held prisoner in a castle, his long-planned escape attempt thwarted by rain and mud.

I thought it would be useful to get to grips with some of the terms used about parts of a castle and the structures that might be found within the walls.

Castles were introduced into England by the Normans. Although some Norman allies of Edward the Confessor, the last Saxon king of England, built three or four castles in England in the middle of the eleventh century, it was William the Conqueror who had castles built all over the country to subdue his new subjects.

Early castles were of the motte and bailey type. The motte was a (usually man-made) mound of earth upon which a wooden tower was built. Typically there was a wooden palisade around the tower and another around the base of the mound. The area encompassed by the palisade was the bailey. A castle provided protection for the people within it, but also gave them a base from which they could go out and subjugate the local population.

It wasn’t long before castles and walls were being built in stone. The exterior walls of most castles were whitewashed. Instead of seeing grey stone looming on the horizon, you should picture something white and impressive. The idea of a castle was to demonstrate to the Saxons that they were a defeated people. Over time, however, castles were used less to oppress the people living around them and more to protect them.

Castle and outer bailey

Portchester Castle and Outer Bailey

In my diagram above, I’ve included most of the things that you’d expect to see in a castle. Some buildings are missing, such as kitchens, bakeries and stables, but we’ll come to these later. Not all castles have all the parts, as it were. Some castles don’t have moats and some don’t have keeps. Some have complicated defences, others are more straightforward.

Castles vary greatly in size and some buildings that call themselves castles aren’t, being fortified houses. Stokesay Castle, for example, which I visited last year, is a fortified manor house.

I’ll go into more detail in future posts, but these are the bare bones of a castle:


Early castles were more or less wooden keeps on a hill surrounded by a tall fence. By the fourteenth century they were made of stone and were the last line of defence within a castle.


Moats were deep ditches, some filled with water, some not. They could go round the outer walls, as in the diagram above, or they could be within the outer bailey.

Outer Bailey

Not all castles had an outer bailey. It was the area outside the inner walls, but within the outer walls.

Inner Bailey

The open area inside the inner walls.


An external defence.

Great Hall

The largest enclosed space in a castle, where the household ate and, for the most part, slept.


A defensive feature on the outermost walls.

Postern Gate

A small side door to the castle.

Curtain wall

Outside wall of a castle between two towers.

Over the next few weeks we’ll look at each feature to see how important, or otherwise, they were to a castle.



Castle – Marc Morris

Capture the Castle – Sam Smiles, Tim Craven, Steve Marshall, Anne Anderson, Andy King


April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

Available now:











Filed under Castle, Fourteenth Century

August Pottage


The Vegetarian Society tells me that August is the month for :Aubergine, Beetroot, Blackberries, Blackcurrants, Broad Beans, Broccoli, Carrots, Cauliflower, Cherries, Chicory, Chillies, Courgettes, Cucumber, Damsons, Fennel, French Beans, Garlic, Greengages, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Loganberries, Mangetout, Marrow, Mushrooms, Parsnips, Peas, Peppers, Potatoes, Plums, Pumpkin, Radishes, Raspberries, Redcurrants, Rhubarb, Rocket, Runner Beans, Samphire, Sorrel, Spring Greens, Spring Onions, Strawberries, Summer Squash, Sweetcorn, Swiss Chard, Tomatoes, Watercress.

I’ve crossed out the many things that have come to England since the fourteenth century to show you how much more choice we have now in our own gardens before we even need think of imported food.  In my own garden I’m overrun with courgettes (zucchinis) and my aubergines (eggplants) are filling out very nicely. Unfortunately, neither was available 700 years ago. My beetroots are doing well and I’m trying for a second crop of peas while it’s still very warm.

As you can see in the picture above, my leeks are tiny, but need thinning. I decided to try leeks and beetroot.  I also managed to find a few beetroot leaves that the caterpillars hadn’t eaten. As usual, there’s no pepper or salt.


I know this is almost the same as I had last month, with the exception of the carrots, but that’s the way of it when you eat food you grow yourself in season. I’ve been eating courgettes every other day for what feels like weeks now and the chickens are laying two or three eggs a day whether I want them or not. If you have a recipe that uses both, I’d love to hear from you.

When I saw the pottage in the bowl I was less than impressed and it tasted as bad as it looked. Last month small pieces of hot beetroot went very well with carrot. On their own they were unpleasant. I had to eat something else to take the taste away. Then I had to have a glass of homemade strawberry wine.

The experiment is proving to be a bit hit and miss and this was a definite miss.


Medieval Gardens – Anne Jennings

April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

Available now:










Filed under Fourteenth Century, Medieval Food