The second Avignon pope was born Jacque Duèse in 1249. After the death of Clement V it took more than two years for a successor to be appointed. As in the previous conclave, the French and Italian cardinals disagreed and could not come to a decision. There was a new French king as well. Philip IV had been succeeded by his son, Louis X (the Stubborn), whose reign lasted less than two years, during which time he abolished slavery and allowed Jews to return to France. Louis’ son was born a few months after his death, but lived only a few days, so Louis was eventually succeeded by his brother, Philip V (the Tall), who reigned from 1316 to 1322. Philip grew impatient with the cardinals’ inability to elect a new pope and imprisoned them until they came to a decision.
John XXII was very energetic, despite being sixty-seven when he was elected. He is best remembered for changing the direction of the Franciscans. There was a movement within the order to return more completely to the rule of St Francis, living more spiritually with no possessions. John, on the other hand, thought obedience to the pope was more important. When the Franciscans said that Christ and the disciples had owned nothing, he responded with a papal bull declaring such beliefs heretical. He thwarted the efforts of the Franciscans to return to a more spiritual way of life by making them owners of property, thus splitting the order. Those who could not live with the pope’s decision, including the order’s General, went to the pope’s main enemy, Louis IV the Bavarian (later Holy Roman Emperor). One of the Franciscans who went to Louis was William of Occam. He is best known for the problem solving principle named after him: Occam’s Razor. He was an influential philosopher and theologian. He was also, along with Sherlock Holmes, one of the inspirations for the character of William of Baskerville in Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose.
In 1328 Louis set up one of the disgruntled Franciscans as antipope in Rome. There had been a vigorous feud concerning the supremacy of the pope involving theologians from across Europe and Louis believed that, since he was Holy Roman Emperor, the pope should admit that the emperor’s power was supreme. Louis repeatedly called John a heretic and burned a straw effigy of him. Eventually Louis made himself so unpopular in Italy that he could not continue to support the antipope and both emperor and antipope surrendered to John.
Like his predecessor, John maintained close links with the French king, which was becoming a real problem for the other monarchs in Europe. When he was negotiating peace between them, as he often was, it was difficult for them to put aside the idea that he favoured the French king’s position. As he approached death, John’s views became more heretical and he had to withdraw many of the opinions he had expressed in private, making it clear that they were private opinions and not papal declarations.
John hoped to return the papacy to Rome and spent a lot of money on mercenaries in the hope of resolving the wars that still raged in Italy. In order to fill his treasury, he declared that incomes in parishes where there was no priest belonged to the papacy, which was not a popular move. He made the papacy more bureaucratic and centralised its administration. Many of these measures weakened the papacy, as they increased the distrust in which it was held across Europe.