Tag Archives: Antipopes

The Great Schism

Some years ago, when this blog was young, I wrote about the popes of the fourteenth century and why they were mostly French and based in Avignon rather than Rome. Last week the Great Schism came up in the comments, so I thought I’d write something about it. I’m afraid it turned out to be rather long, so I hope that you can spare the time to read it.

In 1305 Clement V, a French pope under pressure from the French king to stay in France, moved the papacy to Avignon, which wasn’t then in France but most definitely wasn’t Rome, and made lots of French cardinals who, unsurprisingly, elected a French pope when he died. This pattern continued for most of the fourteenth century, with each pope saying that he wanted to move the papacy back to Rome, but now just wasn’t the right time.

The English weren’t happy having French popes. They believed, not without foundation, that the French popes supported France in the Hundred Years War. The popes made many appointments to important clerical posts in England (and other nations) from men who attended the papal court in Avignon. Again, these were mostly French.

This was mostly seen in the appointments to canonries, prebends and archdeaconries of cathedrals. In 1326 the bishop of Salisbury complained that out of fifty posts available within the cathedral administration, twenty-eight had been filled by order of the pope and only three of the office holders had ever been seen in Salisbury. Half the chapter of York and a quarter of that of Lincoln were foreigners around the middle of the century.

In 1376 Gregory XI managed to return the papacy to Rome. When he died two years later the people of Rome didn’t want yet another French pope and a mob stood outside the building in which the cardinals met to choose his successor shouting that they wanted an Italian, preferably Roman, pope. By now the number of non-French cardinals must have been fairly small, so the options for finding a pope of different nationality were reduced. This can be the only reason why the cardinals chose the archbishop of Bari, who became Urban VI. It soon became clear that since his election he had developed a temper which sometimes drove him to physical violence, even during services in church. This was not a desirable attribute in a pope. The cardinals reconsidered their choice and left Rome, all but three of them. In Anagni they said that they had been coerced by the mob and declared the election invalid. They had another election and chose someone who was neither French nor Italian: Clement VII. This was the beginning of the Great Schism.

When the appointment of another pope was announced, Urban VI simply made new cardinals and stayed in Rome. Clement VII went to Avignon and each pope excommunicated the other. It seems that neither man was really someone who should have been pope. They held similar views and ran things in a similar way. Which pope you supported depended on your nationality. Scotland, France and Spain supported Clement VII. England, the Italian states and most of the Holy Roman Empire supported Urban VI.

This wasn’t the first time there had been two popes at the same time. For 75 years between 1059 and 1179 there were always two popes, each one declaring the other an antipope. The issues here were mainly about the relationship between the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire.

This new schism was a real challenge to the unity of the church that previous schisms had not been. There had been disillusionment with the church since the Black Death in the middle of the fourteenth century and the appearance of two popes who were divided by no great theological issues or by different approaches to running the church caused people to question papal authority. No one could work out how to solve the problem and both popes died before it was resolved. Rather shockingly, both popes were replaced. These new popes promised they would resign should it become clear that their resignation would bring about the unity that everyone desired, but neither they nor their own successors, who made the same promise, did so.

You would think that the situation could not get worse, but it did. The one thing everyone agreed on was that the only way to end the schism was to call a general council of the cardinals, but only the pope could do that and there was no agreement as to who that was.

In 1409 all the cardinals, regardless of which pope they supported, called a council themselves, declared both popes invalid and elected another pope. You can probably see where this is going better than they could. Since it wasn’t clear that the council was entirely legal, the two existing popes didn’t see any need to accept its decisions and remained in post. Alexander V (the third pope) took up residence in Pisa. You won’t be surprised to know that when he died a successor was elected.

Since the popes were supported along national lines, mainly decided by who was or wasn’t at war with one another, this made it even harder to obtain agreement about who was really the pope. It was the nations that took the first step, however, with enemies joining together in support of calling a council to resolve the issue. Eventually a pope was forced to call a general council in Constance. After thirty years, though, a divided church had changed greatly. It was no longer as international as it had been and the rulers of Europe were growing used to having more control over their national churches. It was clear that whoever emerged as pope would not have the pre-eminence his predecessors had had.

It was during this time of schism that theologians such as John Wyclif and Jan Hus were teaching against the pope. One of the actions of the council was to declare Hus a heretic and burn him.

Each of the three popes fought hard to remain pope, but all three were deposed. Eventually Odo Colonna was elected and he became Martin V.

One of the remits of the council was to reform the church, but it didn’t. The cardinals didn’t really get to grips with reform until the Council of Trent in 1545. By then it was already far too late. Luther had issued his 95 theses almost thirty years earlier. Having a single pope didn’t really solve any of the issues around the church’s loss of authority, and the abuses that had prompted talk of reform in the fifteenth century were much worse a century later.

Sources:
The Time-Traveller’s Guide to the Fourteenth Century by Ian Mortimer
The Fourteenth Century by May McKisack
Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages by R. W. Southern
The Pelican History of Medieval Europe by Maurice Keen

April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

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Popes, Antipopes and Avignon: Part Eight

Gregory XI

palais_papes

Our final Avignon pope is Gregory XI and it’s safe to say that he left the papacy in a bit of a mess. He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort and you will recall that he was said to be the son of Clement VI, but acknowledged as his nephew. A little over 40 when he became pope, he had benefitted a great deal from his uncle’s nepotism. He was made a cardinal deacon when he was only 18. Despite this he became a respected theologian and was known for his humility. His election to the papacy was unanimous. Although a cardinal, he was not a priest and had to be ordained before he could be crowned.

He was another pope who considered returning to Rome, but he had made himself so unpopular in Italy that he did not receive much of a welcome there and, had he not died there in 1378, he would have returned to Avignon.

Gregory XI is one of those people whose deaths have more impact than their lives. On his death the Romans were so desperate not to have another French pope that a Neapolitan was elected. He became Urban VI. This decision was soon regretted and some of the cardinals who had elected him elected another pope, Clement VII, who set up a rival papacy in Avignon. This was the first time that a pope and his antipope had been elected by the same group of cardinals. Since both popes had some degree of legitimacy, different parts of Christendom chose which pope they followed. England, of course, and the majority, followed Rome. France, Scotland and the Iberian Peninsula followed Avignon. The rifts caused by the Great Schism, as it was called, were not resolved until 1417 and at one point there were three popes.

Avignon was finally abandoned in 1403. For almost a hundred years constant wars in Italy had made it impossible for the popes to live in Rome. Despite this, the Avignon papacy was seen as a disaster in the fourteenth century, except in France. At the beginning of the fourteenth century the popes were trying to extend their secular power, but by the end of it they were beginning to lose their spiritual power. This was being challenged by Wycliffe and the Lollards in England and Jan Hus in Bohemia at the end of the fourteenth century. This continued through the fifteenth century until it resulted in the Reformation in the sixteenth century. There were other factors that contributed to this, of course, but the Avignon papacy had neither started nor ended well and the ground that had been lost was not easily made up.

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Popes, Antipopes and Avignon: Part Three

John-XXII-450x282

The second Avignon pope was born Jacque Duèse in 1249. After the death of Clement V it took more than two years for a successor to be appointed. As in the previous conclave, the French and Italian cardinals disagreed and could not come to a decision. There was a new French king as well. Philip IV had been succeeded by his son, Louis X (the Stubborn), whose reign lasted less than two years, during which time he abolished slavery and allowed Jews to return to France. Louis’ son was born a few months after his death, but lived only a few days, so Louis was eventually succeeded  by his brother, Philip V (the Tall), who reigned from 1316 to 1322. Philip grew impatient with the cardinals’ inability to elect a new pope and imprisoned them until they came to a decision.

John XXII was very energetic, despite being sixty-seven when he was elected. He is best remembered for changing the direction of the Franciscans. There was a movement within the order to return more completely to the rule of St Francis, living more spiritually with no possessions. John, on the other hand, thought obedience to the pope was more important. When the Franciscans said that Christ and the disciples had owned nothing, he responded with a papal bull declaring such beliefs heretical. He thwarted the efforts of the Franciscans to return to a more spiritual way of life by making them owners of property, thus splitting the order.  Those who could not live with the pope’s decision, including the order’s General, went to the pope’s main enemy, Louis IV the Bavarian (later Holy Roman Emperor). One of the Franciscans who went to Louis was William of Occam. He is best known for the problem solving principle named after him: Occam’s Razor. He was an influential philosopher and theologian. He was also, along with Sherlock Holmes, one of the inspirations for the character of William of Baskerville in Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose.

In 1328 Louis set up one of the disgruntled Franciscans as antipope in Rome. There had been a vigorous feud concerning the supremacy of the pope involving theologians from across Europe and Louis believed that, since he was Holy Roman Emperor, the pope should admit that the emperor’s power was supreme. Louis repeatedly called John a heretic and burned a straw effigy of him. Eventually Louis made himself so unpopular in Italy that he could not continue to support the antipope and both emperor and antipope surrendered to John.

Like his predecessor, John maintained close links with the French king, which was becoming a real problem for the other monarchs in Europe. When he was negotiating peace between them, as he often was, it was difficult for them to put aside the idea that he favoured the French king’s position. As he approached death, John’s views became more heretical and he had to withdraw many of the opinions he had expressed in private, making it clear that they were private opinions and not papal declarations.

John hoped to return the papacy to Rome and spent a lot of money on mercenaries in the hope of resolving the wars that still raged in Italy. In order to fill his treasury, he declared that incomes in parishes where there was no priest belonged to the papacy, which was not a popular move. He made the papacy more bureaucratic and centralised its administration. Many of these measures weakened the papacy, as they increased the distrust in which it was held across Europe.

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Popes, Antipopes and Avignon: Part One

palais des papes

Often when I write these posts I write about things that I know and I just check some of the facts as I write. This post, and the ones that follow, are the result of some specific research that I did so that I would have some background information on the fourteenth century.

When I was much younger I assumed that the Avignon papacy was some kind of rival to a Roman papacy, much in the same way that there were antipopes (in one case three at one time, as we shall see at the end of this series). Gradually I came to realise that the Avignon popes were real popes, were acknowledged as real popes and had, for reasons unknown to me, relocated the papacy to south east France. When I realised that they were not regarded with favour by England, I knew that I had to find out more.

It’s true that what was happening with regard to the papacy would have very little impact on the stories that I’m currently writing, but research is fun and I believe in making the world inhabited by my characters as real as I can. So I knuckled down and started doing the research. The papacy was based in Avignon from 1309 to 1367 and again from 1370 to 1376. The only one about whom I knew anything was Clement VI. He was the pope who warded off the Black Death by spending his days sitting between two fires in the papal palace and refusing to see anyone.

Avignon at the beginning of the fourteenth century was small and dirty. After the papacy was established there the town attracted criminals of all kinds and its taverns and brothels became notorious. Gradually it became larger and more splendid as the cardinals built palaces and the Palais des Papes was finished

The Avignon popes had a reputation for corruption, not only because they seemed to favour the French king, but also because they seemed to be greedy for money and tried to extend their sphere of influence beyond ecclesiastical bounds. It’s not the most edifying period for the papacy, for many reasons, and in order to have any hope of understanding it we need to go back to the end of the thirteenth century.

In 1294 Pope Celestine V was persuaded to abdicate less than six months after he had been crowned. Before his election he had been a hermit and had had no desire to be pope, but two years had passed since the death of the previous pope and the cardinals could not agree on a candidate until someone nominated the reclusive monk. He was completely unworldly and it was easy enough for Cardinal Caetani to talk him into resigning when it became clear that he was not suitable. Not entirely surprisingly, Caetani became the next pope – Benedict VIII – and imprisoned Celestine, afraid that he could be installed as an antipope. Eighteen months later the former pope was dead. Despite his advanced years (he was eighty-one) it was rumoured that Benedict VIII had had him killed. Celestine was canonised by Clement V in 1313.

Boniface VIII was not a popular figure with the European monarchs, because they believed that he interfered too much in secular matters. Despite universal disapprobation, it was Philip the Fair of France (Philip IV) who became his greatest enemy. It should be pointed out that Philp was not called ‘the Fair’ because of his exemplary character, but because of the colour of his hair. Philip wanted to raise a tax so that he could fight Edward I of England in Gascony and the burden of the tax fell on the clergy. This angered Boniface who said that a king didn’t have the right to tax the clergy. This in turn angered the kings, who said that they did. Boniface was ultimately forced to accept their position within certain constraints.

A campaign of rumours was started against Boniface, probably by Philip. It was a ploy he was to use again against the Templars. The pope was accused of nepotism, simony, avarice and sodomy. I had to look up simony and it means the buying or selling of something spiritual or closely connected with the spiritual. In this case it means the selling of ecclesiastical positions.

Matters between Boniface and Philip came to a head in 1301 when the king imprisoned a French bishop, Bernard Saisset. The bishop was accused of treason and insulting behaviour. Needless to say, Boniface demanded the bishop’s release, stating that Philip didn’t have the authority to arrest him. Philip later acknowledged that he did not indeed have the authority to arrest the bishop and released him a few months later. Boniface, however, called the king to appear before him in Rome. Philip refused and responded with accusations against the pope. These included heresy, so he demanded that a General Council be held in France at which the pope could be arraigned. Guillaume de Nogaret, Philip’s right hand man and head rumourmonger, went to Italy to take the pope to France, by force if necessary.

As it turned out it was necessary, but unsuccessful. Boniface was in his home town of Anagni when de Nogaret found him. Boniface was writing a bull to excommunicate Philip, but it went unfinished. He was captured, beaten and nearly executed. Whether he was released or escaped is uncertain, but he managed to get to Rome, where he died a month later. Boniface was very briefly (for eight months) succeeded by Benedict XI.

It might seem odd to write at length about two popes who never, as far as I know, set foot in Avignon, but Boniface’s relationship with Philip set the tone for what was to come later and how he dealt with Celestine shows us something of his character.

After Benedict XI’s short tenure a new pope was elected and this was Clement V (1305-14), the first Avignon pope. Before he became Pope he was Archbishop of Bordeaux. Since he was already in France, he was crowned in Lyon, rather than Rome, at the behest of Louis X, who was very happy to have a French pope. It wasn’t long before it was clear that Clement was little more than a puppet of Louis.

Very quickly a number of Frenchmen were made cardinals, until the majority were French. Clement V didn’t have a settled life. Unable to live in Rome, due to the wars that were constantly being waged in Italy, he moved between Lyon, Poitiers and Bordeaux. It wasn’t until 1309 that he decided to settle in Avignon. The town was in Provence, which was not part of France at that time, but which belonged to a vassal of the French king, Charles of Anjou, King of Sicily and Count of Provence. Nonetheless the papacy was seen for most of the rest of the century as being under the sway of the French kings.

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