Anatomy of a Monastery – The Library

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The library, Rievaul Abbey

If I was surprised by the size of the chapter houses I’ve seen, I was dumbfounded by the size of the libraries. I had anticipated huge spaces, but they were tiny.

All monasteries had a library, but they weren’t necessarily very large, not to start with, at least. In the early Middle Ages, all of a monastery’s books could be kept in a single cupboard. Eventually, however, they needed a room to themselves. From the end of the fourteenth century in many monasteries, that room had to be quite large. By the end of the Middle Ages, even a fairly small monastery could have 1,000 books. The monastery at Canterbury had over 4,000.

Most of the monasteries I’ve visited recently are Cistercian. As you can see from the photograph of the libraries at Rievaulx Abbey above and Roche Abbey below, their libraries tended to be narrow spaces between the north transept of the abbey church and the chapter house. All Cistercian monasteries were laid out on the same plan, with some accommodation being made for the geography of the site and the size of the monastery, so they all had fairly small libraries.

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The Library, Roche Abbey

In monasteries of other orders, the libraries eventually became quite large and there would be additional cupboards of books located around the monastery: in the church, the refectory and the infirmary. Like the dormitories, these larger libraries were often on upper floors.

Books were both valuable and rare, even more so in the early Middle Ages. Before the invention of printing in the fifteenth century, every book had to be written by hand. The books in a monastic library were either copied in the monastery’s own scriptorium or were the gifts of benefactors. The armarius was responsible for both the library and the scriptorium. Monks could borrow books for their own use from the library and there was time set aside each day for them to read. They didn’t read in the library, but, mainly, in the cloister.

Reading was an important activity for a monk. As a minimum, a monastery had books for the offices and some complete Bibles. The libraries typically held individual books of the Bible for personal study. These often had notes or commentaries written in the margins. Works of the Church Fathers (such as St. Augustine, St. Ambrose and St. Jerome) were also held, as were histories; lives of saints; classical texts; books of sermons; meditations; and treatises on medicine and agriculture.

In the thirteenth century, Rievaulx Abbey had 225 books, of which 22 survive. Two catalogues from that time are extant and they list legal works; histories by Bede, Henry of Huntingdon and Eusebius; philosophical works by Cicero and Boethius; books by Bernard of Clairvaux, one of the founders of the Cistercian order; and works by former abbots and monks of the monastery.

Many books from monastic libraries were burned during the dissolution of the Monasteries, although some libraries were just broken up, with the books ending up in private hands. Fortunately, men like Sir Robert Cotton recognised the importance of these books and collected and preserved as many of them as they could. The collection of Sir Robert, his son and his grandson later formed the basis of the British Library.

Sources:
The Companion to Cathedrals and Abbeys by Stephen Friar
Rievaulx Abbey by Peter Fergusson, Glyn Coppack, Stuart Harrison and Michael Carter
Roche Abbey by Peter Fergusson
The Medieval Monastery by Roger Rosewell

April Munday is the author of the Soldiers of Fortune and Regency Spies series of novels, as well as standalone novels set in the fourteenth century.

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27 Comments

Filed under Medieval Buildings, Medieval Monks, Monastery, The Medieval Church

27 responses to “Anatomy of a Monastery – The Library

  1. I didn’t know they destroyed books when they broke up the monasteries.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. I like that there was time set aside for reading every day, I did not know that and imagined them toiling at monkish things 24/7. I feel better for monks now!

    Liked by 2 people

  3. I’m surprised how small they are too. I always imagine monks toiling away illustrating manuscripts all day, did they have special monks for that?

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Losing the Plot

    One of our local aristocrats Sir Hans Sloan from Kilinchy, was an avid collector. I know he bequeathed much of this to the nation, they formed the basis of the Natural History Museum and the British Museum, but I have a sneaking suspicion that he was involved with the British Library too. Had fingers in lots of pies that one.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Have to ask – did you watch the adaptation series of The Name of the Rose? Excellent Monastic Library themed shenanigans (Not as good as the book, though).

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Not since my early days has my personal library collection fit into a cupboard, too! Haha. Also, thank goodness for Sir Robert’s foresight!

    Liked by 1 person

  7. Destroying monasteries is bad enough but to burn books too especially handwritten is sacrilege. Thank goodness for people like Sir Robert!

    Liked by 1 person

  8. Pingback: Anatomy of a Monastery – The Cloister | A Writer's Perspective

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