No Spitting, No Belching


In many of my novels the characters sit down to eat a meal, usually at a feast of some kind. Whilst the food eaten on such occasions is interesting, and there will probably be a post at some point about it, it’s at people’s behaviour during meals that I want to look.

There are medieval ‘etiquette’ manuals describing how people were supposed to behave at table, which is a good indication that many people did not act in what was considered an acceptable way. The recommendations and prohibitions in these manuals relate mainly to personal cleanliness, which might be a surprise to those who believe that people in the fourteenth century never washed or cleaned themselves or cared much about table manners.

The requirements make sense when looked at in the context of how meals took place in great houses. Meals were formal affairs for the wealthy, and white table clothes were spread over trestle tables. Those eating sat on benches. After the meal, the tables and benches were taken down, leaving the hall free for any other activities which might be taking place there.

Before the meal everyone washed their hands. The lord washed his in a bowl held by a servant and dried them in a cloth carried over the servant’s shoulder.  Those of lower status washed their hands before entering the hall. Before they ate, they prayed.

In some households poison was a real fear and food and wine were both tasted before the lord ate or drank, often by several people.

The lord, his family and any important guests sat at a table on a platform at one end of the hall. They sat only on one side facing the hall so that they, and what they were eating, were visible to everyone else in the hall. The rest of the household sat on both sides of the tables which ran down either side of the hall, or, in really great households, in other rooms. They sat in order of precedence, the most senior sitting closest to the lord on his right-hand side.  Those sufficiently senior would eat the same food as the lord. Everyone else would eat something less interesting.

Food came to the table in dishes for two or four people, if it was something in a sauce, or on a platter, if it was meat. People shared these dishes and, sometimes, cups. They either ate straight from the dish or platter that had been placed on the table, or put the food onto their own trencher (a slice of coarse bread).

Food was eaten from the points of knives (slices of meat), or picked up with the fingers (food in sauces). Spoons were occasionally used, but it wasn’t until the seventeenth century that the fork began to be used by the upper classes and another century before it gained acceptance by everyone else.

The list of prohibited behaviours is fairly lengthy and few of them would be tolerated today.  Most of them relate to matters of cleanliness, which is not surprising, given the way in which the food was eaten. Fingernails should not be dirty. The mouth should be empty before drinking from a shared cup. This one makes me shudder – teeth should not be picked with a knife. No one should blow on their food to cool it. No one should scratch their head during the meal. No one should gnaw on bones. There should be no spitting or belching.

Clearly, there was sufficient flouting of the rules to warrant writing them down and I wonder whether such behaviour was commonplace among those seated out of the lord’s, or his wife’s, sight.



Filed under Fourteenth Century

12 responses to “No Spitting, No Belching

  1. I LOVED this post, April. The most interesting bit was about the fear of poison! I can’t imagine thinking about that before sitting down to a meal every day! And the tasters – how nice to be a guinea pig

    Liked by 2 people

    • Thank you. I was also surprised about the poison, but I suppose there were plenty of people who knew that they were hated enough for someone to try to kill them in that way. It would not have been a worry in most households.

      Liked by 2 people

  2. Such an interesting look at this subject. Thanks very much for sharing. Re: spoons, I assume then most people drank soup. Or soup was not a big thing? Otherwise, it all makes a lot of good sense!

    Liked by 2 people

  3. The hand washing surprised me. I hadn’t really thought about them washing much back then.

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  7. Metal spoons were difficult to manufacture. The bowl was usually attached to the handle by some means. The idea of casting an entire spoon, much less a fork, was not yet introduced. Some people might bring a personal fork, likely brought from the Asian trade, but it was rare and seen as an affectation.

    “Spoonmeats” were often fed to the toothless and elderly. These were the thickened broths you referred to. Curdled milk dishes, egg possets, and the like were often sopped up with bread “sippits”. They could be served in trenchers or bowls of hardened bread. By meal’s end, they would be soft enough to eat. These were often given to the beggars at the gates.

    “Broth” meant an entirely different thing then. It was usually what we’d think of as a soup. If a clarified broth WAS employed, it was usually as an aspic/jelly to suspend foods. Clarified gelatin required such refining that the poor rarely even knew that it was the same thing as the cloudy jelly resulting from boiling bones.

    Spoons could be carved from bone, wood and ivory. The ones I saw were something similar to ladles, and weren’t the least bit dainty. Doubt they saw service at a lord’s table.

    My source admonished not to “burnish” bones. Apparently some folks gnawed them clean. Yes, that wouldn’t go over well today!

    Thank you, Ms. Munday!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Forks really didn’t arrive in England until the 17th century. They were being used a bit in Italy in the 14th century, but were very slow to conquer the rest of Europe. Thomas Coryat is credited with introducing them to England. I heard a very interesting programme about him on the radio a few years ago. He travelled across Europe in the early 17th century, mainly on foot.

      I’ve always assumed the spoons on a 14th-century table were wooden, but I can see that that’s something that I need to research.


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